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5 cm) at that point. The remaining dipole and quadrupole elements that will complete the extraction process have standard parameters and will present no technical uncertainties. 0 Table 8. Extraction system elements. 32 4 Cost Estimates The scope of the cost estimates developed below only encompasses the primary 400 MeV/u accelerator chain including the 30 MeV/u pre-accelerator and the Separated Sector Cyclotron. g. ). The cost estimating process was done by dividing the overall project into two major areas; the 30 MeV/u pre-accelerator and the 400 MeV/u Separated Sector Cyclotron.

Using the results from Gordon’s model, the frequency and initial phase were optimized to minimize the space charge energy spread. 5 cm respectively. These values are only ≈10% of the energy gain per turn, and therefore, would result in a relatively insignificant effect. 73 mA. Since this is about one half the operating current for the achieved high-efficiency 1 MW extraction, it would suggest that these estimates are pessimistic. Further, even in the absence of this pessimism, the calculations would imply that the Separated Sector Cyclotron operating parameters will not present performance limitations due to space charge effects.

6 Longitudinal Space Charge The longitudinal space charge forces on the beam can also affect the beam size at extraction and hence, the extraction efficiency. Given the difficulty of accurately evaluating the effects of the longitudinal space charge force, two different approximations were employed to estimate the induced energy spread and consequently the effect on turn separation at extraction. The first approach was to use a formula by Werner Joho11 that provides an estimate of the total accelerating voltage spread caused by the longitudinal space charge force.

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Analysis of a Cyclotron-Based 400 MeV Driver System


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